Database Switchover and Failover for Drupal Websites Using MySQL or PostgreSQL
Drupal is a Content Management System (CMS) designed to create everything from tiny to large corporate websites. Over 1,000,000 websites run on Drupal and it is used to make many of the websites and applications you use every day (including this one). Drupal has a great set of standard features such as easy content authoring, reliable performance, and excellent security. What sets Drupal apart is its flexibility as modularity is one of its core principles.
Drupal is also a great choice for creating integrated digital frameworks. You can extend it with the thousands of add-ons available. These modules expand Drupal’s functionality. Themes let you customize your content’s presentation and distributions (Drupal bundles) are bundles which you can use as starter-kits. You can use all these functionalities to mix and match to enhance Drupal’s core abilities or to integrate Drupal with external services. It is content management software that is powerful and scalable.
Drupal uses databases to store its web content. When your Drupal-based website or application is experiencing a large amount of traffic it can have an impact on your database server. When you are in this situation you’ll require load balancing, high availability, and a redundant architecture to keep your database online.
When I started researching this blog, I realized there are many answers to this issue online, but the solutions recommended were very dated. This could be a result of the increase in market share by WordPress resulting in a smaller open source community. What I did find were some examples on implementing high availability by using Master/Master (High Availability) or Master/Master/Slave (High Availability/High Performance).
Drupal offers support for a wide array of databases, but it was initially designed using MySQL variants. Though using MySQL is fully supported, there are better approaches you can implement. Implementing these other approaches, however, if not done properly, can cause your website to experience large amounts of downtime, cause your application to suffer performance issues, and may result in write issues to your slaves. Performing maintenance would also be difficult as you need failover to apply the server upgrades or patches (hardware or software) without downtime. This is especially true if you have a large amount of data, causing a potential major impact to your business.
These are situations you don’t want to happen which is why in this blog we’ll discuss how you can implement database failover for your MySQL or PostgreSQL databases.
Why Does Your Drupal Website Need Database Failover?
From Wikipedia “failover is switching to a redundant or standby computer server, system, hardware component or network upon the failure or abnormal termination of the previously active application, server, system, hardware component, or network. Failover and switchover are essentially the same operation, except that failover is automatic and usually operates without warning, while switchover requires human intervention.”
In database operations, switchover is also a term used for manual failover, meaning that it requires a person to operate the failover. Failover comes in handy for any admin as it isolates unwanted problems such as accidental deletes/dropping of tables, long hours of downtime causing business impact, database corruption, or system-level corruption.
Database Failover consists of more than a single database node, either physically or virtually. Ideally, since failover requires you to do switching over to a different node, you might as well switch to a different database server, if a host is running multiple database instances on a single host. That still can be either switchover or failover, but typically it’s more of redundancy and high-availability in case a catastrophe occurs on that current host.
MySQL Failover for Drupal
Performing a failover for your Drupal-based application requires that the data handled by the database does not differentiate, nor separate. There are several solutions available, and we have already discussed some of them in previous Severalnines blogs. You may likely want to read our Introduction to Failover for MySQL Replication – the 101 Blog.
The Master-Slave Switchover
The most common approaches for MySQL Failover is using the master-slave switch over or the manual failover. There are two approaches you can do here:
- You can implement your database with a typical asynchronous master-slave replication.
- or can implement with asynchronous master-slave replication using GTID-based replication.
Switching to another master could be quicker and easier. This can be done with the following MySQL syntax:
mysql> SET GLOBAL read_only = 1; /* enable read-only */ mysql> CHANGE MASTER TO MASTER_HOST = '
', MASTER_USER = ' ', MASTER_PASSWORD = ' ', MASTER_LOG_FILE = ' ', MASTER_LOG_POS= START SLAVE; /* start replication */ mysql> SHOW SLAVE STATUSG /* check replication status */
or with GTID, you can simply do,
... mysql> CHANGE MASTER TO MASTER_HOST = '
', MASTER_USER = ' ', MASTER_PASSWORD = ' ', MASTER_AUTO_POSITION = 1; /* master information to connect */ ... Wit
Using the non-GTID approach requires you to determine first the master’s log file and master’s log pos. You can determine this by looking at the master’s status in the master node before switching over.
mysql> MASTER STATUS;
You may also consider hardening your server adding sync_binlog = 1 and innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit = 1 as, in the event your master crashes, you’ll have a higher chance that transactions from master will be insync with your slave(s). In such a case that promoted master has a higher chance of being a consistent datasource node.
This, however, may not be the best approach for your Drupal database as it could impose long downtimes if not performed correctly, such as being taken down abruptly. If your master database node experiences a bug resulting in a database to crash, you’ll need your application to point to another database waiting on standby as your new master or by having your slave promoted to be the master. You will need to specify exactly which node should take over and then determine the lag and consistency of that node. Achieving this is not as easy as just doing SET GLOBAL read_only=1; CHANGE MASTER TO… (etc), there are certain situations which require deeper analysis, looking at the viable transactions required to be present in that standby server or promoted master, to get it done.
Drupal Failover Using MHA
One of the most common tools for automatic and manual failover is MHA. It has been around for a long while now and is still used by many organizations. You can checkout these previous blogs we have on the subject, Top Common Issues with MHA and How to Fix Them or MySQL High Availability Tools – Comparing MHA, MRM and ClusterControl.
Drupal Failover Using Orchestrator
Orchestrator has been widely adopted now and is being used by large organizations such as Github and Booking.com. It not only allows you to manage a failover, but also topology management, host discovery, refactoring, and recovery. There’s a nice external blog here which I found it very useful to learn about its failover mechanism with Orchestrator. It’s a two part blog series; part one and part two.
Drupal Failover Using MaxScale
MaxScale is not just a load balancer designed for MariaDB server, it also extends high availability, scalability, and security for MariaDB while, at the same time, simplifying application development by decoupling it from underlying database infrastructure. If you are using MariaDB, then MaxScale could be a relevant technology for you. Check out our previous blogs on how you can use the MaxScale failover mechanism.
Drupal Failover Using ClusterControl
Severalnines’ ClusterControl offers a wide array of database management and monitoring solutions. Part of the solutions we offer is automatic failover, manual failover, and cluster/node recovery. This is very helpful as if it acts as your virtual database administrator, notifying you in real-time in case your cluster is in “panic mode,” all while the recovery is being managed by the system. You can check out this blog How to Automate Database Failover with ClusterControl to learn more about ClusterControl failover.
Other MySQL Solutions
Some of the old approaches are still applicable when you want to failover. There’s MMM, MRM, or you can checkout Group Replication or Galera (note: Galera does not use asynchronous, rather synchronous replication). Failover in a Galera Cluster does not work the same way as it does with asynchronous replication. With Galera you can just write to any node or, if you implement a master-slave approach, you can direct your application to another node that will be the active-writer for the cluster.
Drupal PostgreSQL Failover
Since Drupal supports PostgreSQL, we will also checkout the tools to implement a failover or switchover process for PostgreSQL. PostgreSQL uses built-in Streaming Replication, however you can also set it to use a Logical Replication (added as a core element of PostgreSQL in version 10).
Drupal Failover Using pg_ctlcluster
If your environment is Ubuntu, using pg_ctlcluster is a simple and easy way to achieve failover. For example, you can just run the following command:
$ pg_ctlcluster 9.6 pg_7653 promote
or with RHEL/Centos, you can use the pg_ctl command just like,
$ sudo -iu postgres /usr/lib/postgresql/9.6/bin/pg_ctl promote -D /data/pgsql/slave/data server promoting
You can also trigger failover of a log-shipping standby server by creating a trigger file with the filename and path specified by the trigger_file in the recovery.conf.
You have to be careful with standby promotion or slave promotion here as you might have to ensure that only one master is accepting the read-write request. This means that, while doing the switchover, you might have to ensure the previous master has been relaxed or stopped.
Taking care of switchover or manual failover from primary to standby server can be fast, but it requires some time to re-prepare the failover cluster. Regularly switching from primary to standby is a useful practice as it allows for regular downtime on each system for maintenance. This also serves as a test of the failover mechanism, to ensure that it will really work when you need it. Written administration procedures are always advised.
Drupal PostgreSQL Automatic Failover
Instead of a manual approach, you might require automatic failover. This is especially needed when a server goes down due to hardware failure or virtual machine corruption. You may also require an application to automatically perform the failover to lessen the downtime of your Drupal application. We’ll now go over some of these tools which can be utilized for automatic failover.
Drupal Failover Using Patroni
Patroni is a template for you to create your own customized, high-availability solution using Python and – for maximum accessibility – a distributed configuration store like ZooKeeper, etcd, Consul or Kubernetes. Database engineers, DBAs, DevOps engineers, and SREs who are looking to quickly deploy HA PostgreSQL in the datacenter-or anywhere else-will hopefully find it useful
Drupal Failover Using Pgpool
Pgpool-II is a proxy software that sits between the PostgreSQL servers and a PostgreSQL database client. Aside from having an automatic failover, it has multiple features that includes connection pooling, load balancing, replication, and limiting the exceeding connections. You can read more about this tool is our three part blog; part one, part two, part three.
Drupal Failover Using pglookout
pglookout is a PostgreSQL replication monitoring and failover daemon. pglookout monitors the database nodes, their replication status, and acts according to that status. For example, calling a predefined failover command to promote a new master in the case the previous one goes missing.
pglookout supports two different node types, ones that are installed on the db nodes themselves and observer nodes that can be installed anywhere. The purpose of having pglookout on the PostgreSQL DB nodes is to monitor the replication status of the cluster and act accordingly, the observers have a more limited remit: they just observe the cluster status to give another viewpoint to the cluster state.
Drupal Failover Using repmgr
repmgr is an open-source tool suite for managing replication and failover in a cluster of PostgreSQL servers. It enhances PostgreSQL’s built-in hot-standby capabilities with tools to set up standby servers, monitor replication, and perform administrative tasks such as failover or manual switchover operations.
repmgr has provided advanced support for PostgreSQL’s built-in replication mechanisms since they were introduced in 9.0. The current repmgr series, repmgr 4, supports the latest developments in replication functionality introduced from PostgreSQL 9.3 such as cascading replication, timeline switching and base backups via the replication protocol.
Drupal Failover Using ClusterControl
ClusterControl supports automatic failover for PostgreSQL. If you have an incident, your slave can be promoted to master status automatically. With ClusterControl you can also deploy standalone, replicated, or clustered PostgreSQL database. You can also easily add or remove a node with a single action.
Other PostgreSQL Drupal Failover Solutions
There are certainly automatic failover solutions that I might have missed on this blog. If I did, please add your comments below so we can know your thoughts and experiences with your implementation and setup for failover especially for Drupal websites or applications.
Additional Solutions For Drupal Failover
While the tools I have mentioned earlier definitely handles the solution for your problems with failover, adding some tools that makes the failover pretty easier, safer, and has a total isolation between your database layer can be satisfactory.
Drupal Failover Using ProxySQL
With ProxySQL, you can just point your Drupal websites or applications to the ProxySQL server host and it will designate which node will receive writes and which nodes will receive the reads. The magic happens transparently within the TCP layer and no changes are needed for your application/website configuration. In addition to that, ProxySQL acts also as your load balancer for your write and read requests for your database traffic. This is only applicable if you are using MySQL database variants.
Drupal Failover Using HAProxy with Keepalived
Using HAProxy and Keepalived adds more high availability and redundancy within your Drupal’s database. If you want to failover, it can be done without your application knowing what’s happening within your database layer. Just point your application to the vrrp IP that you setup in your Keepalived and everything will be handled with total isolation from your application. Having an automatic failover will be handled transparently and unknowingly by your application so no changes has to occur once, for example, a disaster has occurred and a recovery or failover was applied. The good thing about this setup is that it is applicable for both MySQL and PostgreSQL databases. I suggest you check out our blog PostgreSQL Load Balancing Using HAProxy & Keepalived to learn more about how to do this.
All of the options above are supported by ClusterControl. You can deploy or import the database and then deploy ProxySQL, MaxScale, or HAProxy & Keepalived. Everything will be managed, monitored, and will be set up automatically without any further configuration needed by your end. It all happens in the background and automatically creates a ready-for-production.
Having an always-on Drupal website or application, especially if you are expecting a large amount of traffic, can be complicated to create. If you have the right tools, the right setup, and the right technology stack, however, it is possible to achieve high availability and redundancy.
And if you don’t? Well then ClusterControl will set it up and maintain it for you. Alternatively, you can create a setup using the technologies mentioned in this blog, most of which are open source, free tools that would cater to your needs.
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