Business Continuity for Databases
Business continuity for databases means databases must be continuously operational even during the disasters. It is imperative to ensure that production databases are available for the applications all the time even during the disasters, otherwise, could end-up being an expensive deal. DBAs, Architects would need to ensure that database environments can sustain disasters and are disaster recovery SLA compliant. To ensure disasters does not affect database availability, databases must be configured for business continuity.
Configuring databases for business continuity involves a lot of architecting, planning, designing and testing. A lot of factors like data centers and their geographic territories including infrastructure design come into consideration when it comes to designing and implementing an effective disaster recovery strategy for databases. That explains the fact that “Business Continuity = Avoid outages during disasters”.
To ensure production databases survive a disaster, a Disaster Recovery (DR) site must be configured. Production and DR sites must be part of two geographically distant Data Centres. This means, a standby database must be configured at the DR site for every production database so that, the data changes occurring on production database are immediately synced across to the standby database via transaction logs. This can be achieved by “Streaming Replication” capability in PostgreSQL.
What Needs to Happen if Disaster Strikes Production (or Primary) Database?
When production (primary) database crashes or becomes unresponsive, standby database must be promoted to primary and the applications must be pointed to newly promoted standby (new primary) database and all of it must happen automatically within the designated outage SLA. This process is termed as failover.
Configuring PostgreSQL for High Availability
As said above, to ensure that the PostgreSQL is disaster recovery compliant, it must be first configured with Streaming Replication (master + standby database) and with automatic standby promotion/ failover capabilities. Let us look at how to configure streaming replication first and followed by the “failover” process.
Configuring Standby Database (Streaming Replication)
Streaming replication is the in-built feature of PostgreSQL which ensures data is replicated from Primary to Standby database via WAL records and supports both Asynchronous and Synchronous replication methods. This way of replicating is quite reliable and suitable for environments demanding real-time and highly performant replication.
Configuring streaming standby is pretty simple. The first step is to ensure that primary database configurations are as follows:
Primary Database Mandatory Configurations
Ensure the following parameters are configured in postgresql.conf on the primary database. Doing the following changes would require a database restart.
wal_level parameter ensures that the information required for replication is written to the WAL files.
max_wal_senders=1 (or any number more than 0)
WAL records are shipped by wal sender process from the primary database to the standby database. So, the above parameter must be configured to minimum 1. More than a value of 1 is required when multiple wal senders are required.
Enable WAL Archiving
There is no hard dependency on WAL Archiving for streaming replication. However, it is strongly recommended to configure WAL Archiving because, if the standby lags behind and if the required WAL files are removed from the pg_xlog (or pg_wal) directory, then, Archive files will be required to get the standby in sync with the primary if not, the standby must be rebuilt from scratch.
Primary database must be configured to accept connections from standby.
Below configuration must be there in pg_hba.conf
host replication postgres
Now, take a backup of the primary database and restore the same on the DR site. Once done with the restoration, build the recovery.conf file in the data directory with the below contents:
, port= , user= ’ restore_command=’cp /database/wal_restore/%f %p’ trigger_file=’/database/promote_trigfile’ recovery_target_timeline=’latest’
Now, start the standby database. The streaming replication must be enabled. The below message in the postgresql log file of standby database confirms that streaming replication is succesfully working:
2018-01-13 00:22:44 AEDT :  user=,db=,app=,client= LOG: started streaming WAL from primary at 127/CD000000 on timeline 1 2018-01-13 00:22:44 AEDT :  user=,db=,app=,client= LOG: redo starts at 127/CD380170
That concludes that a fully functional streaming replication is in place. Next step to install/configure repmgr. Before that, let us understand the failover process.
What is Failover?
Failover occurs when the primary database becomes completely unavailable due to a disaster. During the failover process, the Standby database will be promoted to become a new primary database so that applications can continue the business operations.
The whole failover process has to happen automatically to ensure effective business continuity is in place and this can only be achieved by some middleware tools. The whole idea is to avoid a manual intervention of DBAs, Developers.
One such tool which helps perform automatic failover is “repmgr”.
Let us take a look at repmgr and its capabilities.
Repmgr is an opensource tool developed by 2nd Quadrant. This tool helps to perform various database administrative activities like building and monitoring PostgreSQL replication including performing automated failover activities in the event of a disaster and also helps to perform switchover operations.
Repmgr is an easy to install tool and the configurations are not complex as well. Let us take a look at installation first:
Download the tool from here.
Untar the tarball and perform the installation as shown below:
I have installed repmgr-4.2.0 on a CentOS 7 host and I have installed repmgr against PostgreSQL-11.1.Before installation ensure PostgreSQL bin directory is part of $PATH and the PostgreSQL lib directory is part of $LD_LIBRARY_PATH. To understand that the repmgr is installed against PostgreSQL-11.1, I am displaying the “make install” output below:
[[email protected] repmgr-4.2.0]# ./configure --prefix=/opt/repmgr-4.2 [[email protected] repmgr-4.2.0]# make [[email protected] repmgr-4.2.0]# make install Building against PostgreSQL 11 /bin/mkdir -p '/opt/pgsql-11.1/lib' /bin/mkdir -p '/opt/pgsql-11.1/share/extension' /bin/mkdir -p '/opt/pgsql-11.1/share/extension' /bin/mkdir -p '/opt/pgsql-11.1/bin' /bin/install -c -m 755 repmgr.so '/opt/pgsql-11.1/lib/repmgr.so' /bin/install -c -m 644 .//repmgr.control '/opt/pgsql-11.1/share/extension/' /bin/install -c -m 644 .//repmgr--unpackaged--4.0.sql .//repmgr--4.0.sql .//repmgr--4.0--4.1.sql .//repmgr--4.1.sql .//repmgr--4.1--4.2.sql .//repmgr--4.2.sql '/opt/pgsql-11.1/share/extension/' /bin/install -c -m 755 repmgr repmgrd '/opt/pgsql-11.1/bin/'
Configuring repmgr for Automatic Failover
Before looking at configuring “repmgr”, the databases must be configured with streaming replication which we have seen earlier. To start with, both the databases (primary and standby) must be configured with the following parameter in postgresql.conf:
Primary [[email protected] log]$ grep "shared_preload" /data/pgdata11/postgresql.conf shared_preload_libraries = 'repmgr' # (change requires restart) Standby [[email protected] log]$ grep "shared_preload" /data/pgdata-standby11/postgresql.conf shared_preload_libraries = 'repmgr' # (change requires restart)
The above parameter is to enable “repmgrd” daemon which, continuously runs in the background and monitors the streaming replication. Without this parameter, it is not possible to perform automatic failover. Changing this parameter would need a database restart.
Next, build the repmgr configuration file (say with the name repmgr.conf) for both the databases. Primary database must have a configuration file with the following contents:
node_id=1 node_name=node1 conninfo='host=xxx.xxx.xx.xx user=postgres dbname=postgres connect_timeout=2' data_directory='/data/pgdata11'
Place the file in the data directory, in this case, it is “/data/pgdata11”.
Standby database configuration file must have the following contents:
node_id=2 node_name=node2 conninfo='host=xxx.xxx.xx.xx user=postgres dbname=postgres port=6432 connect_timeout=2' data_directory='/data/pgdata-standby11' failover=automatic promote_command='repmgr standby promote -f /data/pgdata-standby11/repmgr.conf' follow_command='repmgr standby follow -f /data/pgdata-standby11/repmgr.conf --upstream-node-id=%n' monitoring_history=yes monitor_interval_secs=5 log_file='/data/pgdata-standby11/repmgr_logs/repmgr.log' log_status_interval=5 log_level=DEBUG promote_check_timeout=5 promote_check_interval=1 master_response_timeout=5 reconnect_attempts=5 reconnect_interval=10
Both the databases must be registered with repmgr.
Register Primary database
[[email protected] pgdata-standby11]$ repmgr -f /data/pgdata11/repmgr.conf primary register INFO: connecting to primary database... NOTICE: attempting to install extension "repmgr" NOTICE: "repmgr" extension successfully installed NOTICE: primary node record (id: 1) registered
Register Standby Database
[[email protected] pgdata-standby11]$ repmgr -f /data/pgdata-standby11/repmgr.conf standby register --upstream-node-id=1 INFO: connecting to local node "node2" (ID: 2) INFO: connecting to primary database INFO: standby registration complete NOTICE: standby node "node2" (id: 2) successfully registered
Run the below command to ensure repmgr logging is working.
[[email protected] ~]$ repmgrd -f /data/pgdata-standby11/repmgr.conf --verbose --monitoring-history [2019-02-16 16:31:26] [NOTICE] using provided configuration file "/data/pgdata-standby11/repmgr.conf" [2019-02-16 16:31:26] [WARNING] master_response_timeout/5: unknown name/value pair provided; ignoring [2019-02-16 16:31:26] [NOTICE] redirecting logging output to "/data/pgdata-standby11/repmgr_logs/repmgr.log"
If you can observe, I have configured log_level to DEBUG to generate detailed logging in the standby’s repmgr.conf file. Check the logs for replication status.
Check if the replication is working as expected using repmgr:
[[email protected] pgdata-standby11]$ repmgr -f /data/pgdata-standby11/repmgr.conf cluster show ID | Name | Role | Status | Upstream | Location | Connection string ----+-------+---------+-----------+----------+----------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 | node1 | primary | * running | | default | host=xxx.xxx.xx.xx user=postgres dbname=postgres connect_timeout=2 2 | node2 | standby | running | node1 | default | host=xxx.xxx.xx.xx user=postgres dbname=postgres port=6432 connect_timeout=2
The above message confirms replication is running fine.
Now, if I shutdown the primary database, repmgrd daemon should detect the failure of the primary database and should promote the standby database. Let us see if that happens -The primary database is stopped:
[[email protected] ~]$ pg_ctl -D /data/pgdata-standby11 stop waiting for server to shut down.... done server stopped
The standby database must be promoted automatically. The repmgr logs would show the same:
fallback_application_name=repmgr is 2 [2019-02-14 17:09:23] [WARNING] unable to reconnect to node 1 after 5 attempts [2019-02-14 17:09:23] [DEBUG] is_server_available(): ping status for host=xxx.xxx.xx.xx user=postgres dbname=postgres port=6432 connect_timeout=2 is 0 [2019-02-14 17:09:23] [DEBUG] do_election(): electoral term is 1 [2019-02-14 17:09:23] [DEBUG] get_active_sibling_node_records(): SELECT n.node_id, n.type, n.upstream_node_id, n.node_name, n.conninfo, n.repluser, n.slot_name, n.location, n.priority, n.active, n.config_file, '' AS upstream_node_name FROM repmgr.nodes n WHERE n.upstream_node_id = 1 AND n.node_id != 2 AND n.active IS TRUE ORDER BY n.node_id [2019-02-14 17:09:23] [DEBUG] clear_node_info_list() - closing open connections [2019-02-14 17:09:23] [DEBUG] clear_node_info_list() - unlinking [2019-02-14 17:09:23] [DEBUG] do_election(): primary location is "default", standby location is "default" [2019-02-14 17:09:23] [DEBUG] no other nodes - we win by default [2019-02-14 17:09:23] [DEBUG] election result: WON [2019-02-14 17:09:23] [NOTICE] this node is the only available candidate and will now promote itself [2019-02-14 17:09:23] [DEBUG] get_node_record(): SELECT n.node_id, n.type, n.upstream_node_id, n.node_name, n.conninfo, n.repluser, n.slot_name, n.location, n.priority, n.active, n.config_file, '' AS upstream_node_name FROM repmgr.nodes n WHERE n.node_id = 1 [2019-02-14 17:09:23] [INFO] promote_command is: "repmgr standby promote -f /data/pgdata-standby11/repmgr.conf" WARNING: master_response_timeout/5: unknown name/value pair provided; ignoring DEBUG: connecting to: "user=postgres connect_timeout=2 dbname=postgres host=xxx.xxx.xx.xx port=6432 fallback_application_name=repmgr" DEBUG: connecting to: "user=postgres connect_timeout=2 dbname=postgres host=xxx.xxx.xx.xx fallback_application_name=repmgr" DEBUG: connecting to: "user=postgres connect_timeout=2 dbname=postgres host=xxx.xxx.xx.xx port=6432 fallback_application_name=repmgr" NOTICE: promoting standby to primary DETAIL: promoting server "node2" (ID: 2) using "pg_ctl -w -D '/data/pgdata-standby11' promote" DETAIL: waiting up to 5 seconds (parameter "promote_check_timeout") for promotion to complete DEBUG: setting node 2 as primary and marking existing primary as failed NOTICE: STANDBY PROMOTE successful DETAIL: server "node2" (ID: 2) was successfully promoted to primary
The above precisely means, repmgr was unable to connect to the primary database and after unsuccessful 5 attempts, the standby is promoted to the new primary database. Below is what shows up the promoted standby (new primary) database logs:
2019-02-14 17:09:21 AEDT :  user=,db=,app=,client= FATAL: could not connect to the primary server: could not connect to server: Connection refused Is the server running on host "xxx.xxx.xx.xx" and accepting TCP/IP connections on port 5432? 2019-02-14 17:09:23 AEDT :  user=,db=,app=,client= LOG: received promote request 2019-02-14 17:09:23 AEDT :  user=,db=,app=,client= LOG: redo done at 10F/5A335FF0 2019-02-14 17:09:23 AEDT :  user=,db=,app=,client= LOG: last completed transaction was at log time 2019-02-14 17:08:38.350695+11 2019-02-14 17:09:23 AEDT :  user=,db=,app=,client= LOG: selected new timeline ID: 2 2019-02-14 17:09:23 AEDT :  user=,db=,app=,client= LOG: archive recovery complete 2019-02-14 17:09:24 AEDT :  user=,db=,app=,client= LOG: checkpoint starting: force 2019-02-14 17:09:24 AEDT :  user=,db=,app=,client= LOG: database system is ready to accept connections
I have only mentioned the important parameters in the repmgr configuration file. There are a lot of other parameters which can be modified to meet various requirements. The other important parameters are replication_lag_* parameters as shown below:
#replication_lag_warning=300 # repmgr node check --replication-lag #replication_lag_critical=600 #
Repmgr would check the thresholds of above parameters before promoting standby. If replication lag is critical then, the promotion will not go-ahead. Which is really good because if standby gets promoted when there is a lag that would result in a data loss.
The applications must ensure they reconnect to newly promoted standby successfully with-in the expected timeframe. The load balancers would have the capability of diverting the app connections when the primary database becomes unresponsive. The other alternative would be using middleware tools like PgPool-II to ensure all the connections are diverted successfully.
To ensure successful high-availability architecture is deployed in production, thorough end-to-end testing of the complete process must be performed. In my experience, we use to term this exercise as DR DRILL. Meaning, every 6 months or so, a switchover operation would be performed to ensure standby is successfully getting promoted and the app connections are reconnecting to the promoted standby successfully. The existing primary will become a new standby. Once the switchover operation is successful, metrics are taken down to see SLAs are met.
What is Switchover?
As explained above, Switchover is a planned activity wherein the roles of Primary and Standby database are switched over. Meaning, Standby will become primary and primary will become standby. Using repmgr, this can be achieved. Below is what repmgr does when switchover command is issued.
$ repmgr -f /etc/repmgr.conf standby switchover NOTICE: executing switchover on node "node2" (ID: 2) INFO: searching for primary node INFO: checking if node 1 is primary INFO: current primary node is 1 INFO: SSH connection to host "node1" succeeded INFO: archive mode is "off" INFO: replication lag on this standby is 0 seconds NOTICE: local node "node2" (ID: 2) will be promoted to primary; current primary "node1" (ID: 1) will be demoted to standby NOTICE: stopping current primary node "node1" (ID: 1) NOTICE: issuing CHECKPOINT DETAIL: executing server command "pg_ctl -D '/data/pgdata11' -m fast -W stop" INFO: checking primary status; 1 of 6 attempts NOTICE: current primary has been cleanly shut down at location 0/0501460 NOTICE: promoting standby to primary DETAIL: promoting server "node2" (ID: 2) using "pg_ctl -D '/data/pgdata-standby11' promote" server promoting NOTICE: STANDBY PROMOTE successful DETAIL: server "node2" (ID: 2) was successfully promoted to primary INFO: setting node 1's primary to node 2 NOTICE: starting server using "pg_ctl -D '/data/pgdata11' restart" NOTICE: NODE REJOIN successful DETAIL: node 1 is now attached to node 2 NOTICE: switchover was successful DETAIL: node "node2" is now primary NOTICE: STANDBY SWITCHOVER is complete
What Else repmgr Can Do?
- Repmgr can help build the standby databases from scratch
- Multiple standby databases can be built with one master running
- Cascading standby’s can be built which I feel is more beneficial than configuring multiple standbys to one master database
What if Both Primary and Standby Are Gone?
Well, this is a situation wherein business think about having multiple standby instances. If all of them are gone, then, the only way out is to restore the database from the backups. This is the reason why a good backup strategy is imperative. The backups must be test-restored, validated on regular basis to ensure backups are reliable. Infrastructure design for backups must be such that, restoration and recovery of the backups must not take long. The restoration and recovery process of the backups must be completed within the designated SLA. SLAs for backups are designed in terms of RTO (Recovery Time Objective) and RPO (Recovery Point Objective). Meaning, RTO: time taken to restore and recover the backup must be with-in the SLA and RPO: till what point in time the recovery was done must be acceptable, in other terms it is data loss tolerance and generally businesses say 0 data loss tolerance.
- Business continuity for PostgreSQL is an important requirement for mission-critical database environments. Achieving this involves a lot of planning and costs.
- Resources and Infrastructure must be optimally utilized to ensure an efficient disaster recovery strategy is in place.
- There could challenges from costs perspective which needs to be taken care
- If the budget permits, ensure there are multiple DR sites to failover
- In-case the backups are to be restored, ensure a good backup strategy is in place.